Caricature showing Uncle Sam lecturing four children labelled Philippines (who appears similar to Philippine leader Emilio Aguinaldo), Hawaii, Porto[sic] Rico and Cuba in front of children holding books labelled with various U.S. states. In the background are an American Indian holding a book upside down, a Chinese boy at the door and a black boy cleaning a window. Originally published on p. 8-9 of the January 25, 1899 issue of Puck magazine.
Caption: School Begins. Uncle Sam (to his new class in Civilization). Now, children, you've got to learn these lessons whether you want to or not! But just take a look at the class ahead of you, and remember that, in a little while, you will feel as glad to be here as they are!
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Fluoride is a mineral that is found naturally. When fluoride is applied on enamel, it helps prevent cavities in children and adults by strengthening the enamel structure strong so they are less prone to acid attacks. Dentists recommend Fluoride for both children and adults. Here is a helpful video on fluoride.
Dental sealant are a thin layer that seals the deep grooves or pits of back teeth so that it can protect chewing surfaces from getting cavities. It is a great way to prevent cavities on molars that is so simple and easy - no shot is needed! Sealants on permanent molars reduce the risk of cavities by 80%. ? Learn more here
When a cavity penatrates the inner layer of tooth, a patient will start to feel sensitivity or pain. If cavity reaches the nerve of the tooth (core part of tooth structure), the tooth will get infected. Infection of the tooth can cause severe pain and swelling. Root canal therapy involves removal of cavities, disinfection of tooth, and filling the canal. The Dentist will then recommend the root canal treated tooth to be crowned for further protection from fracture.
We do a comparative evaluation of WebP and JPEG image compression based onthe new encoder that we released in libwebp. The goal is to run a set ofeasily repeatable experiments using publicly available tools and compare theimage compression achieved by WebP and JPEG.
Our earlier comparative study of WebP focused onevaluating a large number of images and was conducted on JPEG sources thatwere crawled from the web. JPEG is a lossy compression format and introducescompression artifacts to the source. In addition, we used initially the PeakSignal-to-Noise Ratio orPSNR as a qualitymetric. PSNR has some downsides when used as aquality metric of images. Based on feedback from the community, we conduct theexperiments on PNG images including images available in a few standard testsuites. We use in this study Structural Similarity orSSIM as quality metricfor this study. SSIM is considered to be a better visual qualitymetric.
We describe two types of evaluations. In the first case, we study theadditional compression achieved by WebP at the same quality level of JPEG. Inparticular, we generate WebP images of same quality (as per SSIM index) as theJPEG images and then compare the file sizes of WebP and JPEG images. In thesecond case, we analyze SSIM vs bits per pixel (bpp) plots for WebP and JPEG.These plots show the rate-distortion trade off for WebP and JPEG.
The data sets for the experiments consist of PNG images. These images wereobtained from publicly accessible standard test image suites as well as alarge collection of PNG images that were crawled from the web.
Each experiment consists of running a set of commands. Only publicly availablecommand line tools are used to keep the experiments reasonably reproductiblefor others. The command line tools used for this experiment are:
identify and convert are command-line tools that are part of ImageMagick. We used version 6.5.7 for this analysis. We used convert to convert between PNG and PPM formats. We used identify to extract the width and height information of an image.
cwebp and dwebpare command-line tools that are part of the libwebp library wereleased in Q1 2011. We used version 0.1.2 of the library. We usedcwebp and dwebp to encode and decode the WebP images. We used thedefault encoding and decoding parameters of these tools.
cjpeg and djpeg are command-line tools that are part of the libjpeglibrary. We used version 6b of the library. We used cjpeg and djpeg toencode and decode JPEG image. We used cjpeg with the -optimize flag tooptimize for file size. We set all other parameters to their defaultvalues.
The quality of an image was measured using SSIM. As previously noted, SSIM isgenerally accepted as a better quality metric than PSNR. For the SSIM indexcomputation, we used apublicly available implementation in C++.The reader may download thePython scriptswe used in the experiments from the code repository for reference.
Image_crawl: To test a large number of images, we collected a random sample of PNG images from Google Image Search web crawl database. Most of the crawled PNG images are icons, graphics, charts, scanned documents, etc. However most images in the standard test collections are like photographs, rather than computer generated images. To make this dataset similar in nature to the standard test suites, we ran a face detection algorithm over these PNG images and considered only those images (around 11,000) for this experiment, that passed this detection test.
The following tables show the results of this experiment for three differentvalues (50, 75 and 95) of JPEG quality parameter Q. Quality parameters 50 and95 represent the image compression at low and high bit-rates respectively. Wehave also included JPEG quality parameter 75 since it is the generallyrecommend quality level for JPEG images.
We study the rate-distortion trade-off of JPEG and WebP. In particular westudy the SSIM vs. bits per pixel (bpp) plots for JPEG and WebP. We take thesource PNG image, compress it to JPEG and WebP using all possible (0-100)quality values. Then for each quality value we plot the SSIM and bpp achievedfor JPEG and WebP. Following figures show such SSIM vs bpp plots for the 3images chosen from the 3 public data sets we have used.
Additionally, we studied the average behavior of SSIM vs bpp plot for theKodak and Tecnick data sets. To plot the average behavior, we compress all theimages in a dataset using WebP and JPEG at 100 different quality values. Wethen plot the average of SSIM and bpp for each quality value. The image crawldata set consists of heterogeneous images that don't lend themselves to thisdata aggregation. The following plots show the average behavior of SSIM andbpp for the Kodak and Tecnick data sets respectively.
The study evaluated WebP compression in comparison to JPEG. We observed thatthe average WebP file size is 25%-34% smaller compared to JPEG file size atequivalent SSIM index. The SSIM vs bpp plots showed that WebP consistentlyrequired less bits per pixel than JPEG for the same SSIM index. These resultsindicate that WebP can provide significant compression improvements over JPEG. 041b061a72