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There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases.

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"SkinCeuticals antioxidant combination of C+E+Ferulic delivers an unprecedented 8 times the skin's natural protection against photoaging - neutralizing free radicals, helping build collagen, and providing unmatched antioxidant protection. Containing 15% pure L-ascorbic acid and 1% alpha tocopherol, the addition of 0.5%Ferulic acid doubles the already synergistic benefits of the original high-potency formula, C+E, transforming it into an unrivaled super-antioxidant combination."

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillar tangles, associated with loss of neurons in the brain and consequent learning and memory deficits. Aβ is the major component of the senile plaques and is believed to play a central role in the development and progress of AD both in oligomer and fibril forms. Inhibition of the formation of Aβ fibrils as well as the destabilization of preformed Aβ in the Central Nervous System (CNS) would be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. Moreover, a large number of studies indicate that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in AD and their suppression or reduction via antioxidant use could be a promising preventive or therapeutic intervention for AD patients. Many antioxidant compounds have been demonstrated to protect the brain from Aβ neurotoxicity. Ferulic acid (FA) is an antioxidant naturally present in plant cell walls with anti-inflammatory activities and it is able to act as a free radical scavenger. Here we present the role of FA as inhibitor or disaggregating agent of amyloid structures as well as its effects on biological models.

There is not enough evidence to support ferulic acid use to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease. Preliminary studies have shown that ferulic acid may improve memory in animal models but there is no human research on this.

Compared to ferulic acid supplements, ferulic acid derived from food has greater bioavailability as more is readily absorbed in the intestine. By contrast, free ferulic acid (unbound to the plant cells) is largely insoluble and poorly absorbed.

Oresajo C, Stephens T, Hino PD, et al. Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008;7(4):290-297. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2008.00408.x

Li Y, Liu C, Zhang Y, Mi S, Wang N. Pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid and potential interactions with Honghua and clopidogrel in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137(1):562-567. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.06.011

Because the serum absorbed almost immediately, I followed up with hyaluronic acid and my moisturizer and went to bed. In the morning, I noticed the hand I used to apply the formula had a slight yellow/orange tinge. The serum is definitely doing something.

The easiest way to incorporate ferulic acid in your skincare routine is to find a serum or moisturizer that includes it in the ingredients list. Many vitamin C serums and moisturizers contain ferulic acid to help boost the effectiveness of vitamin C in the product.

Part of the hydroxycinnamic acid group, ferulic acid is an antioxidant. Found in fruits, grains, vegetables, and certain grasses, this plant-based, natural acid helps prevent environmental stressors from harming the skin.

Construction of recombinant Escherichia coli strains carrying feruloyl esterase genes for secretory expression offers an attractive way to facilitate enzyme purification and one-step production of ferulic acid from agricultural waste. A total of 10 feruloyl esterases derived from nine Lactobacillus species were expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) to investigate their secretion and ferulic acid production. Extracellular activity determination showed all these Lactobacillus feruloyl esterases could be secreted out of E. coli cells. However, protein analysis indicated that they could be classified as three types. The first type presented a low secretion level, including feruloyl esterases derived from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus johnsonii. The second type showed a high secretion level, including feruloyl esterases derived from Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus helveticus. The third type also behaved a high secretion level but easy degradation, including feruloyl esterases derived from Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus reuteri. Moreover, these recombinant E. coli strains could directly release ferulic acid from agricultural waste. The highest yield was 140 μg on the basis of 0.1 g de-starched wheat bran by using E. coli expressed L. amylovorus feruloyl esterase. These results provided a solid basis for the production of feruloyl esterase and ferulic acid.

Figure 1. The halos formed by the extracellular cell-free supernatant of the recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expressing different Lactobacillus feruloyl esterases. FaeLac was derived from Lactobacillus acidophilus. FaeLam was derived from Lactobacillus amylovorus. FaeLcr was derived from Lactobacillus crispatus. FaeLfa was derived from Lactobacillus farciminis. FaeLfe was derived from Lactobacillus fermentum. FaeLga was derived from Lactobacillus gasseri. FaeLhe was derived from Lactobacillus helveticus. FaeLjo1 and FaeLjo2 were derived from Lactobacillus johnsonii. FaeLre was derived from Lactobacillus reuteri.

Figure 5. The releasing of ferulic acid from de-starched wheat bran by the recombinant E. coli strains expressing Lactobacillus feruloyl esterases. Different letters above the column indicate significant differences at p

Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound with the formula (CH3O)HOC6H3CH=CHCO2H. The name is derived from the genus Ferula, referring to the giant fennel (Ferula communis). Classified as a phenolic phytochemical, ferulic acid is an amber colored solid. Esters of ferulic acid are found in plant cell walls, covalently bonded to hemicellulose such as arabinoxylans.[2]

As a building block of lignocelluloses, such as pectin and lignin, ferulic acid is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, including a number of vegetable sources. It occurs in particularly high concentrations in popcorn and bamboo shoots.[3][4] It is a major metabolite of chlorogenic acids in humans along with caffeic and isoferulic acid, and is absorbed in the small intestine, whereas other metabolites such as dihydroferulic acid, feruloylglycine and dihydroferulic acid sulfate are produced from chlorogenic acid in the large intestine by the action of gut flora.[5]

Asterid eudicot plants can also produce ferulic acid. The tea brewed from the leaves of yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a plant traditionally grown in the northern and central Andes, contains quantities of ferulic acid. In legumes, the white bean variety navy bean is the richest source of ferulic acid among the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties.[9] It is also found in horse grams (Macrotyloma uniflorum).[citation needed]

Although there are many sources of ferulic acid in nature, its bioavailability depends on the form in which it is present: free ferulic acid has limited solubility in water, and hence poor bioavailability. In wheat grain, ferulic acid is found bound to cell wall polysaccharides, allowing it to be released and absorbed in the small intestine.[10]

Ferulic acid has been identified in Chinese medicine herbs such as Angelica sinensis (female ginseng), Cimicifuga heracleifolia[11] and Ligusticum chuangxiong. It is also found in the tea brewed from the European centaury (Centaurium erythraea), a plant used as a medical herb in many parts of Europe.[12]

In a proposed ferulic acid biosynthetic pathway for Escherichia coli, L-tyrosine is converted to 4-coumaric acid by tyrosine ammonia lyase, which is converted to caffeic acid by Sam5, which is then converted to ferulic acid by caffeic acid methyltransferase.[18]

Ferulic acid is converted by certain strains of yeast, notably strains used in brewing of wheat beers, such as Saccharomyces delbrueckii (Torulaspora delbrueckii), to 4-vinyl guaiacol (2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol) which gives beers such as Weissbier and Wit their distinctive clove-like flavour. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (dry baker's yeast) and Pseudomonas fluorescens are also able to convert trans-ferulic acid into 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol.[20] In P. fluorescens, a ferulic acid decarboxylase has been isolated.[21] 041b061a72

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